Catena. A brief however thrilling phrase — it makes me consider a Mexican cantina with margaritas, enchiladas and carne asada, quesadillas and mole poblano and more…yum….
Hmmm, my ideas mirror the word, for a catena is a sequence of words strung collectively very similar to a phrase — a sequence that takes by itself “group” which means — and changing the which means of the person phrases. A sequence that may be strung collectively right into a string of catenas, making up a sentence that ultimately tells us the tale.
For example, words corresponding to ball, hearth, dance, sing, play, faculty, and so on., take on a unique which means when combined with one other word(s):
At coronary heart, catena is a collection of particular person words which are linked together, creating that chain.
…an evolving record of the structural guidelines and rules that determines where words are placed in phrases or sentences as well as how the language is spoken. Typically I run across an example that helps explain higher or one other “also known as”. Heck, there’s all the time a greater strategy to explain it, so if it makes faster and/or higher sense, I might respect options and comments from anyone on an area of grammar with which you wrestle or on which you’ll be able to contribute extra understanding.
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This combined phrase can’t be understood based mostly upon the meanings of the person elements, however have to be taken as an entire, i.e., a phrasal verb.
Plural: catenas, catenae
A.okay.a., compound verb, verb-adverb combination, verb-particle development, two-part word/verb or three-part phrase/verb (relying on the number of particles), multi-word verb
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|financial institution on
sit up for
put up with
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|sleeper||someone who is sleeping||mild sleeper||somebody who wakes on the slightest noise|
|riser||someone who will get up, often away from bed||early||someone who habitually will get away from bed sooner than is common|
|take||seize, seize, possess||take after||resemble a mum or dad or ancestor|
|absorb||to know something
to trick someone
|tackle||to battle or compete
to simply accept some work
to make use of somebody
|take over||to take management of one thing|
|take up||to start out doing something|
They took on the boss.
Janet relies on her associates.
It jumped out of the box.
- Inexperienced indicates the collocation
You might also need to read the submit “Idiom“.
A.okay.a., correct idiom
Sara blew her prime at her brother’s antics.
Shelby can’t make up her mind.
Gimme a break, Jim, they’re simply pulling your leg.
He’s gonna take it on the chin.
She’d higher not step on my toes!
It scared the daylights out of me!
Kinds of Discontinuity:
One thing then occurred that was sudden.
Did anyone whom you expected to assist truly help?
Did anybody truly help whom you anticipated to assist?
They referred to as someone to select up the youngsters before faculty.
They referred to as somebody earlier than faculty to select up the youngsters.
- Inexperienced indicates the extrapositional clause
It’s no use crying over spilt milk.
It’s a uncommon discontinuity in English, and lots of are only marginally acceptable when the catena is shifted.
For entertainment, the boys roll rocks.
Everybody refused to reply as a result of the strain was too nice.
As a result of the strain was too nice, everyone refused to reply.
- Inexperienced indicates the topicalization
- Direct and oblique questions with interrogative words:
- how, what, when, the place, which, who, why, and so on.
- Relative clauses with relative pro-forms:
- that, what, where, which, when, who, whose, and so forth.
Why has that been annoying you?
No one is aware of what they’ve been saying.
That one. He’s the one that we’ve been in search of.
Those are dangers which you’ve got been ignoring.
He’s one politician whose flip-flops no one is prepared to overlook.
- Green signifies the wh-fronting
Elided (omitted) material is taken into account a catena.
You might also need to explore the publish “Ellipsis“.
Kinds of Ellipses embrace:
A.okay.a., elliptical development
A.okay.a., fragment answer
“Does Abby speak Greek fluently?” “No, Abby speaks Albanian fluently.”
- Gray signifies the omitted fragment that answers the question
A.okay.a., antecedent-contained deletion
John washed the dishes, and Mary did wash the dishes, too.
John washed the dishes on Tuesday, and Mary did wash the dishes on Tuesday, too.
- Green indicates the grammar
- Grey signifies the omitted verb phrase, the ellipsis
- Gray indicates the comparative deleted word
Gapping can’t operate backwards, so the antecedent to the hole should come before the gap.
Some ate bread, and others ate rice.
Fred likes to pet the cat, and Sally likes to pet the canine.
Jim has been being observed by me, and Tom has been being observed by you.
- Inexperienced signifies the catena
- Grey indicates the “gap” in the catena
On the most, every thing else within the noun phrase that follows the word that introduces the ellipsis could also be omitted.
There are a number of ways to create an NP-ellipsis by:
- Coming before the antecedent
- Introducing it with a possessive ‘s or a pronoun
- Introducing it with an ordinal number
- Introducing with a
– N-ellipsis introduced by quantifier
A.okay.a., N-ellipsis, ‘N′’-ellipsis, NPE, noun ellipsis, NP-ellipsis
As a result of he did the first two issues, she goes to try this final three issues.
When Susan brings her canine, Sam brings his canine too.
Despite the fact that he skipped one process, he did do the rest of the tasks.
Jill likes your story although she hates Bill’s story.
Because you purchased two donuts, I purchased three donuts.
I caught the primary practice earlier than you caught the second practice.
Some faculty youngsters like syntax, and some faculty youngsters don’t.
Each scholar was helped so that each scholar would understand.
Susan likes her huge pink fish with a stripe and Tom likes his huge pink fish with a stripe too.
Susan likes her massive purple fish with a stripe and Tom likes his huge pink fish with spots.
- Gray indicates the omitted
A predicate catena is a phrase (an argument) that contributes to the which means of the sentence predicate, i.e., the predicate-argument construction.
The cat was bitten by the canine.
The canine bit the cat.
Mary minimize the gown.
Mary minimize the gown on the slicing desk.
The gown was minimize by Mary.
Peter flew his kite.
Peter flew his kite high within the sky.
Excessive in the sky, Peter’s kite flew.
Helen hit Donny with a baseball yesterday.
Yesterday, Helen hit Donny with a baseball.
Donny was hit by Helen yesterday by a baseball.
Yesterday, Donny was hit with a baseball by Helen.
With a baseball, Helen hit Donny yesterday.
Yesterday, Donny was hit by Helen with a baseball.
Ashley is managing the membership Thursday, and Sam is managing the club Friday.
- Grey indicates the omitted
I was afraid of something that day, but I didn’t know of what.
Jack purchased one thing, but I don’t know what.
“Someone called.” “Really? Who?“
Jack referred to as, but I don’t know (when/how/why/the place from).
A automotive is parked on the garden — find out whose.
Uncle Henry informed me to anticipate someone, but he didn’t say who.
My people have been fightin’ final week, but I don’t know what about.
Someone referred to as for you yesterday, but I don’t know who.
- Green indicates the wh-phrase
That single aspect is usually accompanied by a particle reminiscent of also, as nicely, or too, to assist clarify the which means.
A.okay.a., naked argument
Laura drank the milk final night time, or perhaps Laura drank the juice final night time.
I met Aisha yesterday, however I didn’t meet her daughter.
She informed John to return outdoors, and Ben to return outdoors too.
- Grey signifies the stripped out elements of the clause
A.okay.a., verb phrase ellipsis, VPE
The ellipsis have to be launched by an auxiliary verb — be, can, do, don’t, might, have, might, may, shall, should, will, gained’t, would, and so on.) or by the infinitive particle to.
She is going to promote sea shells, and he’ll sell sea shells too.
You may do it, but I gained’t do it.
She gained’t chuckle, but he’ll snigger.
Susan has been dishonest, and Fred has been dishonest too.
Larry shouldn’t be telling the truth, neither is Jim telling the reality.
They may do it if they need to do it.
Sam needs to eat, and Fred needs to eat as properly.
Susan will write the paper, gained’t she write the paper?
— —. “sluicing (grammar).” Thoughtco. Net. 6 March 2017. Accessed 27 April 2019. .
Osborne, Timothy. “Is Linear Order Derived?” Which means Textual content.internet. 8–9 September 2011. 6 April 2019. .
“Verb phrase ellipsis“. Wikipedia.org. 30 June 2018. 6 Apr 2019. .
The cropped Chain Portray by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Liz Dunagan, US Navy, Yokosuka, Japan, 23 December 2015, is in the public area courtesy of the U.S. Navy.