answer fragment antecedent-contained ellipsis argument-contained ellipsis Author Resources Blog catena chain comparative deletion copyediting discontinuity Editing editor ellipsis English extraposition gapping Grammar Grammar Explanations idiom idiosyncratic meaning Kathy Davie KD Did It NP-ellipsis predicate-argument structure proofreading pseudogapping scrambling self-editing sluicing stripping topicalization VP-ellipsis wh-fronting word choices writer Writing

Catena – KD Did It Edits

Catena. A brief however thrilling phrase — it makes me consider a Mexican cantina with margaritas, enchiladas and carne asada, quesadillas and mole poblano and more…yum….

Hmmm, my ideas mirror the word, for a catena is a sequence of words strung collectively very similar to a phrase — a sequence that takes by itself “group” which means — and changing the which means of the person phrases. A sequence that may be strung collectively right into a string of catenas, making up a sentence that ultimately tells us the tale.

For example, words corresponding to ball, hearth, dance, sing, play, faculty, and so on., take on a unique which means when combined with one other word(s):

At coronary heart, catena is a collection of particular person words which are linked together, creating that chain.

…an evolving record of the structural guidelines and rules that determines where words are placed in phrases or sentences as well as how the language is spoken. Typically I run across an example that helps explain higher or one other “also known as”. Heck, there’s all the time a greater strategy to explain it, so if it makes faster and/or higher sense, I might respect options and comments from anyone on an area of grammar with which you wrestle or on which you’ll be able to contribute extra understanding.

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Catena Part of Speech: Grammar, Linguistics Definition: A phrase or collection of words that type a single phrase (a unit of syntax and morphology), like a sequence in a sentence and intently associated with dependency grammars.

This combined phrase can’t be understood based mostly upon the meanings of the person elements, however have to be taken as an entire, i.e., a phrasal verb.


Plural: catenas, catenae

A.okay.a., compound verb, verb-adverb combination, verb-particle development, two-part word/verb or three-part phrase/verb (relying on the number of particles), multi-word verb

Primary Catena Definition: Combines two phrases that immediately modifications the definition of the each words with the headword (the phrase being modified).

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A mere pattern…

financial institution on
introduced up
gown down
eat up
recover from
sit up for
made up
move out
put up with
run into
assume over
commerce in
turn down
walk across
Idiosyncratic Which means Definition: The last word catena, it combines phrases in order that the mixture cannot be outlined using the person words’ personal meanings. Collocation Definition: A grouping of words that always go collectively or that generally happen collectively.

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Headword Definition of Headword + Particle Verb Definition of Ensuing Catena
sleeper someone who is sleeping mild sleeper somebody who wakes on the slightest noise
riser someone who will get up, often away from bed early someone who habitually will get away from bed sooner than is common
take seize, seize, possess take after resemble a mum or dad or ancestor
absorb to know something

to trick someone

tackle to battle or compete

to simply accept some work

to make use of somebody

take over to take management of one thing
take up to start out doing something

They took on the boss.

Janet relies on her associates.

It jumped out of the box.


  1. Inexperienced indicates the collocation
Idiom Definition: A kind of determine of speech consisting of a verb and a noun (and more) which might be a kind of collocation catena.

You might also need to read the submit “Idiom“.

A.okay.a., correct idiom

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Maintain your fingers crossed.

Sara blew her prime at her brother’s antics.

Shelby can’t make up her mind.

Gimme a break, Jim, they’re simply pulling your leg.

He’s gonna take it on the chin.

She’d higher not step on my toes!

It scared the daylights out of me!

Rule: Idioms can’t be altered in any major means without dropping their idiomatic which means. Can’t Be Passive Can’t Be Topicalized Nouns Can’t Be Modified/Questioned chew the fats The fats was chewed by us. ..and the fats we chewed Which fats did they chew? fly the coop The coop was flown by the thief. …and the coop the thief flew Which coop did the thief fly? get out of Dodge Dodge was acquired out of by us. …and Dodge we acquired out of Which Dodge did he get out of? kick the bucket The bucket was kicked by him. …and the bucket he kicked Which bucket did he kick?


Discontinuity Definition: Occurs when a phrase or phrase is separated from one other word or phrase and causes confusion in what is meant.

Kinds of Discontinuity:

Definition: The putting of a phrase or group of phrases outdoors or on the finish of a clause, while retaining the sense of the wording.

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One thing that was sudden then occurred.

One thing then occurred that was sudden.

Did anyone whom you expected to assist truly help?

Did anybody truly help whom you anticipated to assist?

They referred to as someone to select up the youngsters before faculty.

They referred to as somebody earlier than faculty to select up the youngsters.


  1. Inexperienced indicates the extrapositional clause
Rule: The subject is usually postponed and replaced by it at first. Crying over spilt milk is not any use.

It’s no use crying over spilt milk.


  • Green signifies the transposed phrase
  • Topicalization Definition: Moves the catena to the front of the sentence.

    It’s a uncommon discontinuity in English, and lots of are only marginally acceptable when the catena is shifted.

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    The boys roll rocks for leisure.

    For entertainment, the boys roll rocks.

    Everybody refused to reply as a result of the strain was too nice.

    As a result of the strain was too nice, everyone refused to reply.


    1. Inexperienced indicates the topicalization
    Wh-fronting Definition: Happens when a wh-expression is on the entrance of the clause with a purpose to focus it and occurs in:

    • Direct and oblique questions with interrogative words:
      • how, what, when, the place, which, who, why, and so on.
    • Relative clauses with relative pro-forms:
      • that, what, where, which, when, who, whose, and so forth.

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    Which house does Jim plan to purchase?

    Why has that been annoying you?

    No one is aware of what they’ve been saying.

    That one. He’s the one that we’ve been in search of.

    Those are dangers which you’ve got been ignoring.

    He’s one politician whose flip-flops no one is prepared to overlook.


    1. Green signifies the wh-fronting
    Ellipsis Definition: The omission of one or more phrases that are not mandatory for the phrase to be understood.

    Elided (omitted) material is taken into account a catena.

    You might also need to explore the publish “Ellipsis“.

    Kinds of Ellipses embrace:

    A.okay.a., elliptical development

    Answer Fragment Definition: Omits the phrase.

    A.okay.a., fragment answer

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    “Who can play the guitar?” “John can play the guitar.”

    “Does Abby speak Greek fluently?” “No, Abby speaks Albanian fluently.”


    1. Gray signifies the omitted fragment that answers the question
    Antecedent-contained Ellipsis Definition: Verb phrases that MUST be similar, though the second verb phrase is omitted.

    A.okay.a., antecedent-contained deletion

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    He’s considering the same thing I’m considering.

    John washed the dishes, and Mary did wash the dishes, too.

    John washed the dishes on Tuesday, and Mary did wash the dishes on Tuesday, too.


    1. Green indicates the grammar
    2. Grey signifies the omitted verb phrase, the ellipsis
    Argument-contained Ellipsis Definition: A verb phrase ellipsis that doesn’t perform correctly in English and but websites insist on including it (to match it to other languages during which it does work). Comparative Deletion Definition: The exact same phrase is omitted within the second clause.

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    More women have been there right now than women have been there yesterday.


    1. Gray indicates the comparative deleted word
    Gapping Definition: Missing a head noun in the catena, you possibly can skip the second usage of the catena.

    Gapping can’t operate backwards, so the antecedent to the hole should come before the gap.

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    Ought to I try and call you otherwise you try and name me?

    Some ate bread, and others ate rice.

    Fred likes to pet the cat, and Sally likes to pet the canine.

    Jim has been being observed by me, and Tom has been being observed by you.


    1. Inexperienced signifies the catena
    2. Grey indicates the “gap” in the catena
    Noun-phrase Ellipsis Definition: At a minimum, the top noun of the phrase/clause (phrases) is omitted (elided) in one of the phrases and the sentence continues to be understood.

    On the most, every thing else within the noun phrase that follows the word that introduces the ellipsis could also be omitted.

    There are a number of ways to create an NP-ellipsis by:

    • Coming before the antecedent
    • Introducing it with a possessive ‘s or a pronoun
    • Introducing it with an ordinal number
    • Introducing with a
      – N-ellipsis introduced by quantifier

    A.okay.a., N-ellipsis, ‘N′’-ellipsis, NPE, noun ellipsis, NP-ellipsis

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    John can play 5 instruments, and Mary can play six instruments.

    As a result of he did the first two issues, she goes to try this final three issues.

    When Susan brings her canine, Sam brings his canine too.

    Despite the fact that he skipped one process, he did do the rest of the tasks.

    Jill likes your story although she hates Bill’s story.

    Because you purchased two donuts, I purchased three donuts.

    I caught the primary practice earlier than you caught the second practice.

    Some faculty youngsters like syntax, and some faculty youngsters don’t.

    Each scholar was helped so that each scholar would understand.

    Susan likes her huge pink fish with a stripe and Tom likes his huge pink fish with a stripe too.

    Susan likes her massive purple fish with a stripe and Tom likes his huge pink fish with spots.


    1. Gray indicates the omitted

    Noun Ellipsis

    Predicate-argument Structure Definition: The structure is a mixture of a predicate and its arguments, i.e., any expression(s) in a sentence that expands on what the verb is expressing and helps complete the which means of the predicate. (It can take as much as three arguments.)

    A predicate catena is a phrase (an argument) that contributes to the which means of the sentence predicate, i.e., the predicate-argument construction.


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    Phrase Argument Predicate
    Jenny performs. Jenny plays

    The cat was bitten by the canine.

    The canine bit the cat.

    Mary minimize the gown.

    Mary minimize the gown on the slicing desk.

    The gown was minimize by Mary.

    Peter flew his kite.

    Peter flew his kite high within the sky.

    Excessive in the sky, Peter’s kite flew.

    Helen hit Donny with a baseball yesterday.

    Yesterday, Helen hit Donny with a baseball.

    Donny was hit by Helen yesterday by a baseball.

    Yesterday, Donny was hit with a baseball by Helen.

    With a baseball, Helen hit Donny yesterday.

    Yesterday, Donny was hit by Helen with a baseball.

    Pseudogapping Definition: Most however not all of a verb phrase is omitted in a sentence.


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    John can play the guitar and Mary can play the violin.

    Ashley is managing the membership Thursday, and Sam is managing the club Friday.


    1. Grey indicates the omitted
    Sluicing Definition: A stranded wh-phrase that is part of an Nordquist

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    John can play one thing, however I don’t know what.

    I was afraid of something that day, but I didn’t know of what.

    Jack purchased one thing, but I don’t know what.

    “Someone called.”   “Really? Who?“

    Jack referred to as, but I don’t know (when/how/why/the place from).

    A automotive is parked on the garden — find out whose.

    Uncle Henry informed me to anticipate someone, but he didn’t say who.

    My people have been fightin’ final week, but I don’t know what about.

    Someone referred to as for you yesterday, but I don’t know who.


    1. Green indicates the wh-phrase
    Stripping Definition: Occurs in a sentence when all the things in one clause is omitted but a single factor stays.

    That single aspect is usually accompanied by a particle reminiscent of also, as nicely, or too, to assist clarify the which means.

    A.okay.a., naked argument

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    Pedro left La Paz, and María left La Paz as properly.

    Laura drank the milk final night time, or perhaps Laura drank the juice final night time.

    I met Aisha yesterday, however I didn’t meet her daughter.

    She informed John to return outdoors, and Ben to return outdoors too.


    1. Grey signifies the stripped out elements of the clause
    VP-ellipsis Definition: At the head of the second phrase, the non-finite verb has been ignored, i.e., elided.

    A.okay.a., verb phrase ellipsis, VPE

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    Rule: The elided (omitted) verb phrase (VP) have to be a non-finite verb phrase phrase; it can’t be a finite VP.

    The ellipsis have to be launched by an auxiliary verb — be, can, do, don’t, might, have, might, may, shall, should, will, gained’t, would, and so on.) or by the infinitive particle to.

    John can play the guitar and Mary can play the guitar, too.

    She is going to promote sea shells, and he’ll sell sea shells too.

    You may do it, but I gained’t do it.

    She gained’t chuckle, but he’ll snigger.

    Susan has been dishonest, and Fred has been dishonest too.

    Larry shouldn’t be telling the truth, neither is Jim telling the reality.

    They may do it if they need to do it.

    Sam needs to eat, and Fred needs to eat as properly.

    Susan will write the paper, gained’t she write the paper?

    — —. “sluicing (grammar).” Thoughtco. Net. 6 March 2017. Accessed 27 April 2019. .

    Osborne, Timothy. “Is Linear Order Derived?” Which means Textual content.internet. 8–9 September 2011. 6 April 2019. .

    “Verb phrase ellipsis“. 30 June 2018. 6 Apr 2019. .

    The cropped Chain Portray by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Liz Dunagan, US Navy, Yokosuka, Japan, 23 December 2015, is in the public area courtesy of the U.S. Navy.